Technology of the pretreatment of raw water

NAME OF THE COURSE Technology of the pretreatment of raw water



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Dražan Jozić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Acquisition of basic theoretical knowledge about the quality of raw water as well as modern technologies, which are used in the purpose of the preparation raw water for the different industry. Acquiring basic practical knowledge about the management and process control water softening.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam the student will be able to:
- Identify the basic physical and chemical properties of water
- Assess according to set requirements on the quality of the feed water softening appropriate procedure
- Determine the effectiveness of the technological process of softening water
- Apply the means for softening water

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1.Week L Introductory lecture and notes related to the course, Water and its physical and chemical properties
2.Week L Water in nature, Global hydrological cycle of water, Physical and chemical properties of surface and groundwater, Pollution of the ground and surface water. Regulations on water quality
3.Week L Technical features of water for industry, Technological parameters of water quality, Chemical composition and water modes and interpretation of results, Measurement marks and names
4.Week L Water as a working fluid in Chemical Engineering, Requirements for water quality in the implementation of technological processes of the chemical industry. General conditions for the quality of the water in heating unit systems, Standards for thermodynamic properties of water (IFC, IAPWS-IF97)
5.Week L Salts dissolved in the raw water, Defining the hardness of water and salts which makes the water hardness, Units of measure and mark, Methods of determining water quality.
6.Week L Gases dissolved in the raw water, the possible adverse effects on the process equipment. Methods of the degasification water.
7.Week L Preparation of process water for thermal power plants, sludge formation and the related negative effects on the process equipment and economy, First test
E Laboratory methods for determining physical and chemical properties of the raw water
8.Week L The processes of preparation raw water by application sedimentation process, Theory of the sedimentation, Water softening agents for sedimentation procedures, Methods for control optimal addition of chemicals and implementation process of softening water.
E Water treatment by combination of the chemical precipitation processes and filtration process, with the use of the lime as a precipitant in a fast reactor
9.Week L The processes of the preparation of process water chemical clarification, Theoretical fundamentals about the processes and agents for coagulation, agglomeration, sedimentation and flotation, Parameters that affect the implementation process, How to choice of chemicals for clarification, Process Equipment.
E Chemical clarification raw waters by application of sedimentation and flocculation process simultaneous together with the process of decarbonization in the accelerator
10.Week L Application of filters devices for the preparation of process water, Types and characteristics of filter cartridge, Effects of application the filter unit, Speed and capacity of filtration, Process equipment for filtration,
11.Week L Application of ion exchangers in the preparation of process water, Types and classification of ion exchangers. Physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers, How to applied ion exchangers and cycles of lifetime of ion exchangers, Regeneration process of the ionic mass
E Softening raw water by using neutral type of the ionic exchangers in the process and regeneration of ion exchange resin.
12.Week L The application of membrane processes for the preparation of process water, Types of membranes and their physical and chemical properties, Industrial application of the process: Reverse osmosis, Electrodeionisation
E Demineralization and deionization process waters by using ion exchange
13.Week L How to remove iron, manganese, chloric and oil from the process water, Methods and apparatus for purification
14.Week L Specific methods of treatment of process water for various purposes disinfection / sterilization by oxidation (Chlorination, Chlorine Dioxide, Ozone, Peroxone ...) and non oxidizing agents (UV radiation, membrane micro and ultra filtration, microfiltration layer), Water disinfection oligodynamically action of heavy metal ions
15.Week L Second Test

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities


Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work







Seminar essay





Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

The exam can be finished over the two tests during the semester. Minimum for successful tests is the limit of the 50% resolved test. Each test in assessing participates with a share of the 40% of the final grade. Presence at lectures 70-100% participates with a share of the 5% of the final grade while the presence of the laboratory exercises from 100% participates with a share of the 15% of the final grade. The examination periods there is a written and oral exam. Minimum for successful written exam is the limit of the 50% resolved test. Passing one test (previous activity) is valuable in the summer semester examination period with a share of the 15% of the final grade. Written exam has a share of the 25% and verbal has a share of the 40% of the final grade. Students who have not passed any tests during the semester they take the examination through written and oral exams in the regular examination period. Minimum for successful tests the limit of the 50% resolved test. Written part of exam and oral part of exam participates with a share of the 50% of the final grade.
The final grade: 50%-61% - sufficient, 62%-74% - good, 75%-87% very good, 88%-100% - excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

M. Šivak, Tehnologija pripreme tehničkih voda u termoenergetici, Nakladnička djelatnost Marijan Šivak, Zagreb 2002.


Frank Kemer, Nalkov priručnik za vodu, Savez inženjera i tehničara Srbije, Beograd, 2005.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

Selected articles from journals recommended by lecturer

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at three levels:
(1) University Level;
(2) Faculty Level by Quality Control Committee;
(3) Lecturer’s Level.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)

 - monitoring of students suggestions and reactions during semester
- students evaluation organized by University