Milk and Dairy Technology

NAME OF THE COURSE Milk and Dairy Technology



Year of study


Course teacher

Prof Tea Bilušić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Asst Prof Danijela Skroza

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Acquiring a basic knowledge on
- The chemical composition, nutritive and healthy value of milk and dairy products
- Milk and dairy products processing
- the control of milk and dairy products safety during and after processing
- the work of control laboratory (control of chemical composition, sensory evaluation, microbiological tests)
- cheese production (processing control and quality control)

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After completing the course, the student will become familiarized with the major concepts of milk and dairy products technology, which includes:
- to determine the chemical compostion and sensory value of milk and dairy products
- to recognize risks factors for milk and dairy products safety
- to apply the knowledge on milk and dairy products processing (yogurth, cheese, fermented milk)
- to apply the knowledge on beneficial microorganisms important in milk and dairy technology in production of fermented products
- to define the nutritive and healthy importance of milk and dairy products in daily diet

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1. Introduction. Types of milk. L (1h)
2. Chemical composition of milk: milk fat. L (1h), S (1h)
3. Chemical composition of milk: lactose; proteins in milk. L (2h), S (2h)
4. Chemical composition of milk: enzymes, vitamins, minerals. L (2h)
5. Nutritive value of milk. L (1h), S (1h)
6. Sensory evaluation of milk and dairy products. L (1h)
7. Primary and secondary microorganisms in milk. Types of fermentation proces sin milk and dairy prodcts. L (2h), S (1h)
8. Processing milk. The use of high temperature in milk processing. P (2h), S (1h)
9. The use of membrane separation techniques in milk products. L (1h), S (1h)
10. Fermented dairy products clasiffication. (L1h), S (1h)
11. The role of probiotics in processing of fermented dairy products. L (1h), S (1h)
12. Nutritive and health effects of fermented dairy products. L (2h), S (1h)
13. Introduction to cheese industry. Cheese classification. L (2h), S (1h)
14. Basic knowledge on cheese processing. L (2h)
15. Cogulation process in cheese processing. L (2h)
16. The role of maturation process in cheese production. L (2h), S (1h)
17. Butter processing. Ice-cream processing. L (2h), S (1h)
Laboratory exercises:
- sensory evaluation of milk and dairy products (pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, yogurts, cheeses)
- microbiological tests (resazurin test, test using methylene blue, rapid cooking test, MILKBACT tests)
- determination of physical and chemical parameteres in milk: density, water content, ash, lactose, protein, fat
- test for pasteurization control (phosphatase test)
- test for antibiotics in milk
- casein isolation
- preparation of casein and albumin types of cheeses
- preparation of yogurt

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Lectures attendance - at least 70% of full schedule; attendance on seminar work – at least 80% of full schedule. To design the seminar work on selected topic

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

During semester, two written exams are provided (as partical examinations). Test will be carried out within 60 minutes. Students who obtain positive mark from both exams, will have oral examination in order to obtain the final mark. During semester, students should present their seminar work on selected topic within this course. The final mark of this course will count the mark from seminar work, marks from written exams, and mark from oral exams.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

Lj. Tratnik. Mlijeko-tehnologija, biokemija i mikrobiologija. Hrvatska mljekarska udruga. Zagreb, 1998.


R. Božanić, I. Jeličić, T. Bilušić. Analiza mlijeka i mliječnih proizvoda. Priručnik Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Plejada, 2012.


J. Havranek, V. Rupić, S. Golc-Teger. Mlijeko: od farme do mljekare. Hrvatska mljekarska udruga, Zagreb, 2003.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

E. Spreer. Milk and Dairy Products Technology, CRC Press, 1998.
Y.W. Park. Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products. Wiley Blackwell, 2009.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

- registration of student’s presence in class
- annual analysis of students success in this course
- student’s survey in order to evaluate the professor
- professor’s self-evaluation

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)