Exercises in General Microbiology

NAME OF THE COURSE Exercises in General Microbiology



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Mirjana Skočibušić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Asst Prof Ana Maravić

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

The laboratory component of the course provides hands-on experience with microbiology techniques, including aseptic technique, microbial growth, and diagnostic procedures. Evaluate how physical and chemical methods can be used to control microbial growth.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course

Enrolled in or passed the course General Microbiology

Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

Students completing this course should be able to:
- Applied methods of physiological and biochemical tests for the identification of the different groups of microorganisms.
- Analyse the properties of microorganisms in terms of cellular anatomy and physiology.
- Summarize the properties of microorganisms in terms of biochemistry and genetics and correlate these concepts to applications in biotechnology.
- Demonstrate proper microbiology laboratory techniques involving microscopy, biochemical tests and diagnostic media to characterize microorganisms of significance to human health.
- Evaluate how physical and chemical methods can be used to control microbial growth.
- Determine the number of microorganisms in the sample and calculate the growth of microorganisms in controlled laboratory conditions.

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1. Laboratory Safety. The use and care of the microscope. Microscopic measurements. (2 hours)
2. Introduction to principles and laboratory methods in microbiology.(2 hours)
3. Techniques in aseptic conditions, methods of preparation and staining of various preparations.(2 hours)
4. Bacterial culture characteristics. The use of general media for isolating pure cultures. (2 hours)
5. Pour plate and streak plate methods. The use of selective and differential media. (2 hours)
6. Isolation of pure cultures of microorganisms, preparation of culture media, and use of different methods of isolation and identification.(2 hours)
7. Biochemical activities - Carbohydrate fermentation, Triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, IMViC test, API strip.(2 hours)
8. Basic macro and micro morphological characteristics and yeasts and molds. Cultivation of yeasts and molds on nutrient media, isolation and identification.
(2 hours)
9. The main morphological features of the parasite. Sampling and preparation of samples for identification of parasites. (2 hours)
10. The effect of temperature and pH on microorganisms.(2 hours)
11. Atmospheric oxygen requirements. Cultivation of anaerobes.(2 hours)
12. The inhibitory action of heavy metals*. The inhibitory action of disinfectants.
(2 hours)
13. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: The antibiogram.(2 hours)
14. Methods for determining the number of bacteria in different samples of food,
dilution method, the spectrophotometric method and membrane filtration.
(2 hours)
15. Methods for determining the number of bacteria in different samples of water
and wastewater dilution method, the spectrophotometric method and membrane filtration. (2 hours)

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Admission to the planned laboratory exercises in the amount 100% of the times scheduled.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

The final grade of the student is compiled from the combination of lecture, seminar, laboratory. Final course grade will be based on: Mid‐term exam 30%; End of term exam 35%; Seminar 10%; Lab course 15%. Course grade will be based upon a percentage of total points obtained using the following scale: <60% insufficient; 60-70% sufficient (2); 70-80% good (3); 80-90% very good (4); 90-100% excellent (5).

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

S. Duraković, S.Redžepović, Uvod u opću mikrobiologiju, Kugler, Zagreb, 2002.


e-learning portal

S. Kalenić, E. Mlinarić-Missoni i sur., Medicinska bakteriologija i mikologija, Merkur A.B.D., Zagreb, 2005.


Z. Brudnjak, Medicinska virologija, Merkur A.B.D., Zagreb, 2002.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

R.A. Harvey, P.C. Champe, B.D. Fisher, Microbiology, 2th ed., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2007.
R.M. Patrick, S.R. Ken, A.P. Michael, Medical Microbiology, 5th ed. Elsevier/Mosby, Philadelphia, 2005.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at different levels: Keeping records of his attendance; Annual performance analysis examination; Student surveys in order to evaluate teachers; Self-evaluation of teachers; Feedback from students who have already graduated from the relevance of content items.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)