Synthesis of Biologically Active Compounds

NAME OF THE COURSE Synthesis of Biologically Active Compounds



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Ani Radonić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Acquisition of basic knowledge about selected classes of biologically active compounds, with emphasis on their chemistry, i.e. structural characteristics that causes biological activity and thereby application in pharmacy and medicine.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam students will be able to:
- specify the most important classes of biologically active compounds and the most important representatives of each class
- recognize and give name to some, important biologically active compounds based on their structural formula and classify them in the appropriate class based on structural features and/or biological activity
- present by structural formula the most important biologically active compounds
- connect biological activity and chemical structure (structure-activity relationship) of important biologically active compounds
- describe briefly synthesis of selected biologically active compounds
- specify significance and application of important biologically active compounds
- perform independently laboratory exercises according to laboratory procedures
- perform independently synthesis, isolation and purification of biologically active compounds as well as their characterization

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

Lectures (2 hours weekly):
1st week: Introduction to course (course content, students responsibilities, terms and conditions for passing exam). Biologically active compounds – definition. Chirality and biological activity. Natural bioactive compounds. Biological properties of chiral compounds.
2nd week: Methods for preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds. Synthetic methods for preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds (biotechnological method of synthesis, stereoselective or asymmetric synthesis).
3th week: Synthesis and semisynthesis of selected steroids. Female seks hormones. Estrogens. Progestins. Male seks hormones.
4th week: Synthesis of selected alkaloids. Morphine and morphine derivatives.
5th week: Semisynthetic morphine derivatives. Sympathomimetic drugs. Adrenaline. Ephedrine.
6th week: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Salycilic acid derivatives. Propionic acid derivatives. Arylacetic acid derivatives. p-Aminophenol derivatives.
7th week: Sulfonamides. Sulfonylureas.
8th week: Barbiturates. Benzodiazepines.
9th week: Anesthetics. General anesthetics. Inhalational anesthetic. Intravenous anesthetic.
10th week: Local anesthetic. Ester type local anesthetic of ester type. Amide type local anesthetic.
11th week: Cardiovascular drugs. Vasodilators. -Blockers.
12th week: Calcium channel blockers. ACE inhibitors.
13th week: Antibiotics – definition, classification, mechanism of action. -lactam antibiotics. Penicillins.
14th week: Macrolides. Tetracyclines.
15th week: Synthesis of selected vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins.
Exercises (3 hours weekly joined together in 8 lab periods):
1. Sulfonamides. Sulfanilamide synthesis. (2 lab periods)
2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acetysalicylic acid synthesis. (1 lab period)
3. Vitamins. Nicotinic acid synthesis. (2 lab periods)
4. Barbiturates. Barbituric acid synthesis. (2 lab periods)
5. Characterization of synthesized compounds. UV/VIS and FT-IR spectroscopy. Recording and interpretation of spectra. (1 lab period)

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Students are required to attend lectures in the amount of at least 80% of the times scheduled and complete all laboratory exercises (100% attendance). Active participation in teaching process will be also evaluated in the final score.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

A student can pass the entire exam by taking and passing two partial exams (tests) during the semester. Test passing score is 60%. Each test constitute 45% of the final exam score. Grades achieved through laboratory exercises will constitute 10% of the final score. Any of the partial exams passed during the semester is valid throughout the academic year.
Students who do not pass one of the partial exam or both of them have to take an written exam in the regular examination periods. Exam passing score is 60%.
Grades depending on the test score: 60% - 69% - satisfactory, 70% -79% - good, 80% -89% very good, 90% -100% - excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

Wilson and Gisvold’s Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, J. H. Block, J. M. Beale, Jr. (Editors), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2004.


M. Mintas, S. Raić-Malić, Medicinska kemija, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, 2009.


N. Raos, S. Raić-Malić, M. Mintas, Lijekovi u prostoru, farmakofori i receptori, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2005.


S. V. Bhat, B. A. Nagasampagi, M. Sivakumar, Chemistry of Natural Products, Springer-Narosa, Berlin, 2005.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

R. Vardanyan, V. Hruby, Synthesis of Essential Drugs, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at three levels:
(1) University Level;
(2) Faculty Level by Quality Control Committee;
(3) Lecturer’s Level.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)