Thermodynamics and thermotechnics

NAME OF THE COURSE Thermodynamics and thermotechnics



Year of study


Course teacher

Prof Vanja Martinac

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

The aim of the course is to provide students with wide knowledge of basic thermodynamic principles related to their application in engineering.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam, students are expected to:
1. specify and define the units of measurements of basic thermodynamic magnitudes and the state equations (for ideal and real gases)
2. specify and correctly interpret the basic laws of thermodynamics
3. specify and explain thermodynamic changes of the state of ideal and real gases
4. define and explain the processes of expansion and compression
5. define and explain maximum work, technical work and exergy
6. define and explain clockwise circular processes
7. define and explain irreversible processes (throttling, mixing of gases)
8. discern and analyse processes in devices used to obtain low temperatures
9. define and explain the principle of corresponding states, fugacity, partial molal quantities
10. apply the knowledge acquired to solving tasks related to changes of the state of ideal and real gases and liquids, compression processes, clockwise and counter-clockwise circular processes, and processes in technical heat exchangers.

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1. week: General consideration. Maximum work of the system.
2. week: Application of the second law of thermodynamics to energy transformation - exergy and anergy.
3. week: Reversible processes for ideal gases. Cyclic processes.
4. week: Technical plants for cyclic processes. Irreversibility and losses in cyclic processes.
5. week: Compressors - processes in compressors.
6. week: Real gases and steams. Water vapor. Thermodynamic diagrams and tables for variables of state.
7. week: Vapour power cycles.
8. week: Refrigerators - processes in refrigerators. Heat pump.
9. week: Liquefaction of gases according to Linde, Claude and Kapica.
10. week: Thermodynamic properties of fluids. Equations of state of real gases and their mixtures.
11. week: The principle of corresponding states. Application to gases and liquids. Improved principle of corresponding states – the Pitzer correlation.
12. week: Fugacity. Methods of calculating fugacity.
13. week: Solutions – partial molal quantities. Methods of calculation of partial molal quantities.
14. week: Thermotechnics – Modes of heat transfer. Laws of heat transfer. Combined modes of heat transfer.
15. week: Applied of heat transfer to some special cases. Heat exchangers.
Numeric examples demonstrating the topics covered are analysed during the course, making an integral whole with the lectures.
Examples from the engineering practice are solved during exercises.
List of Exercises:
Exercise 1. Mixing of Ideal Gases at V = const.
Exercise 2. Mixing of Ideal Gases at p = const.
Exercise 3. Rankine Cycle – Superheated
Exercise 4. Methods for Increasing the Thermal Efficiency of Vapour Power Plants
Exercise 5. Regenerative Vapour Power Cycle
Exercise 6. Comparison Gas Power and Gas Refrigeration Systems
Exercise 7. Comparison Vapor power and Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities


Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work







Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

Continuous assessment through partial preliminary exams (three times in a semester) allows for exemption from the written exam. The passing threshold is 60 %. Partial preliminary exams are not mandatory. Preliminary exams are not eliminatory. Each passed preliminary exam participates with 12 % in the rating. Attendance to lectures and seminars (80%-100%) participates with 5% in the rating. Activity in exercises participates with 5% in the rating. The oral part of the exam participates with 54% in the rating. A written and an oral exam are taken in examination periods. The oral exam is mandatory for all students, and the written one is mandatory only if the student is not exempt from it. A passed preliminary exam (prior activity) in the summer examination period participates with 10% in the rating. The written exam participates with 36% and the oral one with 54%. Students who have not passed the written exam through preliminary exams take the full exam (final exam) consisting of the written and the oral exam in regular examination periods. The passing threshold is 60 %, and each exam form participates in the rating with 50 %. The written part of the exam participates in the rating with 46%, and the oral part with 54%. Ratings: 60%-70% - satisfactory, 71%-80% - good, 81%-90% - very good, 91%-100% - excellent

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

N. Petric, I. Vojnović, V. Martinac, Tehnička termodinamika, 2 izdanje, on line (2007-01-09), Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2007.


on line

V. Martinac, Termodinamika i termotehnika (priručnik - formule i tablice), on line (2008-12-09), Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2008.


on line

M. J. Moran, H. N. Shapiro, D. B. Daisie, M. B. Bailey, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 7th Ed., Wiley, New York, 2010.


Yunus A. Cengel, Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

Y. A. Cengel, M. A. Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 7th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2011.
R. E. Sonntag, C. Borgnakke, G. J. Van Wylen, Fundamentals of thermodynamics, 8th Ed., Wiley, New York, 2012.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

- monitoring of students suggestions and reactions during semester
- students evaluation organized by University

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)