Mineral Raw Materials From Seawater

NAME OF THE COURSE Mineral Raw Materials From Seawater



Year of study


Course teacher

Prof Vanja Martinac

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Assoc Prof Miroslav Labor

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Through the program of lectures and exercises, the students master the knowledge of basic properties of seawater and methods of exploiting mineral raw materials from seawater.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam, students are expected to:
- explain and discern physical and chemical properties of seaware
- discern macro and micro constituents in seawater
- carry out the analysis of seawater for the content of calcium and magnesium independently according to work instructions
- carry out the analysis of seawater for the boron content independently according to work instructions
- determine the CO2 content in seawater independently according to work instructions
- describe technological processes of extracting mineral raw materials (magnesium, sodium chloride, bromine and fresh water) from seawater

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1st week: Seawater – a source of mineral raw materials.
2nd week: The basic properties of seawater.
3rd week: Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater.
4th week: Composition of seawater. Classification of components dissolved in seawater.
5th week: Concentration and chemical forms of elements in seawater.
6th week: Constant ratios of major components of seawater.
7th week: Minor components of seawater.
8th week: Isothermal evaporation of seawater and separation of individual salts.
9th week: The effect of climactic and other factors on the evaporation process.
10th week: Evaporation of concentrated sea bittern.
11th week: Possibilities of technological exploitation of seawater.
12th week: Extraction of common salt.
13th week: Extraction of bromine from seawater.
14th week: Recovery of magnesium and magnesium compounds from seawater.
15th week: Extraction of fresh water from the seawater – desalination processes.
Exercises: During exercises, seawater is chemically analysed for the content of calcium, magnesium, boron and free CO2. Practical knowledge is obtained of technological processes of extracting mineral raw materials (magnesium oxide and sodium chloride) from seawater. List of Exercises: Analysis of seawater for its content of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide, Analysis of seawater for its content of CO2, Determination of boron in seawater, Recovery of magnesium oxide from seawater (seawater pretreatment, precipitation with 80% of the stoichiometric quantity of dolomite lime, washing and filtration, calcinations of magnesium hydroxide, chemical analysis of magnesium oxide from seawater), The visit to industrial plant – salt works - extraction of common salt from seawater.

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Attendance to lectures for 80% of the total number of hours. Full attendance to exercises and field work (100% of the total number of hours).

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work







Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

Attendance to lectures is registered (not included in the rating). During the semester students have to perform exercises (lab and field work). Exercises participate with 30% in the rating. An oral exam is held in the examination periods. The oral exam is mandatory for all students.
Ratings: 60 %-70 % - satisfactory, 71 %-80 % - good, 81 %-90 % - very good,
91 %-100 % - excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

F. J. Millero, Chemical Oceanography, 3th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005.


V. Martinac, Magnezijev oksid iz morske vode (on line 2010-12-13), Sveučilišni priručnik, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2010.


on line

Desalination, Trends and Technologies, Ed by M. Schorr (on line 2011-02-28), InTechOpen, 2011.


on line

M. J. Kennish, Practical Handbook of Marine Science, 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001.


V. Martinac, M. Labor, More kao izvor mineralnih sirovina, laboratorijske vježbe (on line 2011-01-18), Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2011.


on line

Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

M. E. Q. Pilson, Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea, 2st edition, Prentice Hall, 2013.
K. Stowe, Exploring Ocean Science, Wiley, New York, 1996.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality of the teaching and learning, monitored at the level of the (1) teachers, accepting suggestions of students and colleagues, and (2) faculty, conducting surveys of students on teaching quality.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)