General microbiology

NAME OF THE COURSE General microbiology



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Mirjana Skočibušić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Asst Prof Ana Maravić

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

This course is designed to give students understanding of basic concepts in microbiology including various microorganisms their physiology, morphology, genetics, ecology, pathogenicity and application used of laboratory methods and techniques in microbiological research.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

Students completing this course should be able to:
- better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between structure, diversity and replication of different groups of microorganisms.
- learn about genetic mechanisms of adaptation of prokaryotic microorganisms in a variety of environmental conditions.
- applied methods of physiological and biochemical tests for the identification of the different groups of microorganisms.
- identify the mechanisms of pathogenicity of microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals as well as the mechanisms used by the hosts to defend themselves against pathogens.
- determine the number of microorganisms in the sample and calculate the growth of microorganisms in controlled laboratory conditions.

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1. Introduction. Historical development of microbiology. (2 hours)
2. The distribution of microorganisms and their role in biogeochemical processes in nature. (2 hours)
3. Eukaryotes, Archaea and Bacteria; structure and function. Morphology, nomenclature and classification of microorganisms. (2 hours)
4. Basic structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (2 hours)
5. Microbial genetics, genome organization, mobile genetic elements. (2 hours)
6. The growth of microorganisms and the basic growth factors, nutrients, temperature, oxygen, pH and osmotic pressure. (2 hours)
7. Metabolic activity of microorganisms. Identification of microorganisms using various physiological and biochemical tests. (2 hours)
8. Microorganisms and diseases, resistance, relationship microorganisms and host immune responses to infection. (2 hours)
9. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics and other chemical substances. (2 hours)
10. Basic morphological characteristics of fungi, yeasts and molds and their pathogenicity. Diseases caused by fungi, and their toxins. (2 hours)
11. Application of microorganisms in biotechnology. (2 hours)
12. Basic morphological characteristics and development cycles of parasites.
13. The role of microorganisms in the biodegradation of heavy metals, nitrate, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. (2 hours)
14. Basic morphological characteristics of viruses, viroids and prions. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Methods of studying properties of the viruses. (2 hours)
15. Control the growth of microorganisms by physical and chemical methods. (2 hours)
Lab topics will include: Techniques in aseptic conditions, methods of preparation and staining of various preparations. Isolation of pure cultures of microorganisms, preparation of culture media, culture and use of different methods of isolation and identification of bacteria. Basic macro and micromorphological characteristics and yeasts and molds. Cultivation of yeasts and molds on nutrient media, isolation and identification. The main morphological features of the parasite. Sampling and preparation of samples for identification of parasites. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and other chemical substances and to determine the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Methods for determining the number of bacteria in different samples of food and water dilution method, the spectrophotometric method and membrane filtration.

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Admission to the lectures in the amount of at least 70% of the times scheduled. Completed all planned laboratory exercises and seminar essay.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

The final grade of the student is compiled from the combination of lecture, seminar, laboratory. Final course grade will be based on: Mid‐term exam 30%; End of term exam 35%; Seminar 10%; Lab course 15%. Course grade will be based upon a percentage of total points obtained using the following scale: <60% insufficient; 60-70% sufficient (2); 70-80% good (3); 80-90% very good (4); 90-100% excellent (5).

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

S. Duraković, S.Redžepović, Uvod u opću mikrobiologiju, Kugler, Zagreb, 2002.


e-learning portal

S. Kalenić, E. Mlinarić-Missoni i sur., Medicinska bakteriologija i mikologija, Merkur A.B.D., Zagreb, 2005.


Z. Brudnjak, Medicinska virologija, Merkur A.B.D., Zagreb, 2002.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

R.A. Harvey, P.C. Champe, B.D. Fisher, Microbiology, 2th ed., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2007.
R.M. Patrick, S.R. Ken, A.P. Michael, Medical Microbiology, 5th ed. Elsevier/Mosby, Philadelphia, 2005.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at different levels: Keeping records of his attendance; Annual performance analysis examination; Student surveys in order to evaluate teachers; Self-evaluation of teachers; Feedback from students who have already graduated from the relevance of content items.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)