Natural Products

NAME OF THE COURSE Natural Products



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Ani Radonić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Acquisition of basic knowledge about structural characteristics, properties, biological distribution, biological activity and application of important classes of natural products. The course is basis for understanding of other courses, especially Chemistry and technology of aromatic plants , Aroma chemistry, Synthesis of biological active compounds.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course

Enrolled in or passed the course Experimental in Natural Products

Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam students will be able to:
- differentiate primary and secondary metabolites
- specify important classes of natural products and characteristic representatives of each class
- recognize and give name to some, important natural compounds based on structural formula and classify them in the appropriate class based on structural features
- present by structural formula the most important natural compounds
- specify main characteristics, physical and chemical properties of important natural compounds based on their structure
- describe biosynthesis of natural products classes or important natural compounds
- specify major biological activities (physiological function) of important natural compounds
- specify importance and application of important natural compounds

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

Lectures (3 hours weekly):
1st week: Introduction to course (course content, students responsibilities, terms and conditions for passing exam). Primary and secondary metabolism. Primary and secondary metabolites. Natural products isolation methods. Basic isolation procedures. Distillation. Extraction.
2nd week: Chromatographic methods – definition and classification. Thin-layer chromatography. Column chromatography. Gas chromatography. Liquid chromatography.
3th week: Lipids - introduction. Classification. Fats and oils. Fatty acids. Saturated, unsaturated, -3 and -6, polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids.
4th week: Physico-chemical properties of fats and oils. Hydrolysis. Oxidation. Hydrogenation. Physical and chemical constants of fats and oils. Isolation methods of fats and oils.
5th week: Waxes. Plant waxes. Animal waxes. Compound lipids. Phospholipids. Sphingolipids. Glycolipids.
6th week: Terpenoids – introduction. Classification of terpenoids. Monoterpenes. Sesquiterpenes. Diterpenes. Triterpenes. Polyterpenes.
7th week: Steroids – introduction. Classification. Sterols. Zoosterols. Cholesterol. Phytosterols. Stigmasterol. -Sitosterol. Sterols of yeast and fungi. Ergosterol. Bile acids.
8th week: Steroid hormones – introduction. Classification. Sex hormones. Estrogens. Progestogens. Androgens. Adrenocortical hormones- corticosteroids.
9th week: Steroid glycosides. Cardiac glycosides. Saponins. Carotenoids – introduction. Carotenes. Xanthophylls.
10th week: Vitamins – introduction. Classification of vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin C. Vitamin B complex. Vitamin B1. Vitamin B2. Niacine-vitamin B3. Vitamin B5. Vitamin B6. Folic acid. Biotin. Vitamin B12.
11th week: Fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin A. Vitamin D. Vitamin E. Vitamin K. Alkaloids. Definition. Function of alkaloids. Classification of alkaloids.
12th week: Protoalkaloids. Alkaloids with pyridine, piperidine and pyrolidine ring. Tropane alkaloids.
13th week: Alkaloids with quinoline ring. Opium alkaloids. Alkaloids with indole ring. Purine alkaloids. Phenolic compounds. Definition, properties and function of phenolics. Biosynthesis. Shikimic acid and shikimic acid derived compounds.
14th week: Structural types of phenolic compounds. Phenylpropanoids. Phenolic acids. Lignins. Flavonoids.
15th week: Natural dyes. Flavonoid dyes. Anthocyanins. Quinones. Benzoquinones. Naphthoquinones. Anthraquinones. Carotenoids. Pyrols. Alkaloids.

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Students are required to attend lectures in the amount of at least 80% of the times scheduled. Active participation in teaching process will be also evaluated in the final score.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

A student can pass the entire exam by taking and passing three partial exams (tests) during the semester. Test passing score is 60%. Each test constitute 30% of the final exam score. Attendance to the lectures (80-100%) participate in the final score with 10%. Any of the partial exams passed during the semester is valid throughout the academic year.
Students who do not pass some of the partial exams or all of them have to take an written exam in the regular examination periods. Exam passing score is 60%.
Grades depending on the test score: 60% - 69% - satisfactory, 70% -79% - good, 80% -89% very good, 90% -100% - excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

S. V. Bhat, B. A. Nagasampagi, M. Sivakumar, Chemistry of Natural Products, Springer-Narosa, Berlin, 2005.


P. M. Dewick, Medicinal Natural Products, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997.


J. Mann, R. S. Davidson, J. B. Hobbs, D. V. Banthorpe, J. B. Harborne, Natural products: their chemistry and biological significance, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Harlow, 1994.


Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

J. Bruneton, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants, Lavoisier publishing Inc., Paris, 1995.
I. Tabaković, Organska kemija prirodnih spojeva, Glas, Banja Luka, 1983.
D. Kuštrak, Farmakognozija-Fitofarmacija, Golden marketing-Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Monitoring of quality assurance will be performed at three levels:
(1) University Level, conducting surveys of students on teaching quality;
(2) Faculty Level, by Quality Control Committee;
(3) Lecturer’s Level, monitoring and accepting suggestions of students and colleagues

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)