Marine and Submarine Mineral Raw Materials

NAME OF THE COURSE Marine and Submarine Mineral Raw Materials



Year of study


Course teacher

Assoc Prof Miroslav Labor

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Through a program of lectures and exercises students acquire knowledge of marine and submarine mineral resources and their exploitation.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam, students are expected to:
- explain and distinguish mineral resources of the sea and seabed
- describe the methods of exploitation
- describe the economic aspects of the exploitation of mineral resources of the sea and seabed
- implement ”sustainable” development in certain industrial processes

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1st week: Minerals expected in beach deposits.
2nd week: Submerged beaches.
3rd week: Beaches being exploited now and exploration methods.
4th week: Mineral raw materials from sea water. Extraction of minerals from
seawater: NaCl, magnesium compaunds, bromine, gold etc.
5 th week: Production of minerals in conjuction with the desalination of sea water.
6 th week: New technologies for mineral extraction from the sea.
7 th week: The concentration of elements by marine organisms.
8 th week: Superficial deposits of the continental shelf. Phosphate deposites -
distribution and exploration.
9 th week: Other minerals on the continental shelfves - glauconite, barium
sulphate, organic sediments, etc.
10 th week: Sediments of the ocean floor. Pelagic sediment. Calcareous and
siliceous oozes, red clay and other minerals.
11 th week: Manganese nodules. Physical characteristic of the nodules, methods of
exploration, concetraction of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, etc.
12 th week: Associated sediments. Effect of ocean-floor currents and animals.
13 th week: Mining of superficial sediments from the ocean floor.
14 th week: Economic aspect of ocean mining.
15 th week: Legal problems involved in ocean mining - law of the sea.
During the practicum, students will gain the practical knowledge about how to prepare raw materials required for the technological process of obtaining magnesium oxide from sea water. List of laboratory exercises:
Exercise 1. Determining the optimal amount flocculent at 80% precipitation of magnesium hydroxide from seawater.
Exercise 2. Determining the influence the initial concentration of magnesium hydroxide on the sedimentation rate and concentration of the resulting suspension.
Exercise 3. Determining the influence the degree of completenes of precipitation on the rate of sedimentation of magnesium hydroxide.
Exercise 4. Determination of the optimal degree of completeness precipitation with appropriate quantities of the flocculent added.
Exercise 5. Calculation of a continuous thickener applying Kynch theory

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Attendance to lectures for 80% of the total number of hours. Full attendance to exercises (100% of the total number of hours).

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

Attendance to lectures is registered (not included in the rating). During the semester students have to perform lab exercises. After performing exercises followed by treatment of the experimental results and preparation of reports. Finally completed students take the oral examination of the material covered by the exercises. Experimental part of the work in the lab scored with 30% of the final assessment report after completion of the exercise with 2%, and the final oral exam with 60%.
Ratings: 60%-70% satisfactory, 71%-80% good, 81%-90% very good,
91%-100% excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

K. A. Sverdrup, A. B. Duxbury, A. C. Duxbury, Fundamentals of Oceanography, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2006.


V. Martinac, Magnezijev oksid iz morske vode, on line (2010-12-13), Sveučilišni priručnik, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2010.


on line

T. Garrison, Essentials of Oceanography, 6th Edition, Brooks/Cole, USA, 2012.


M. J. Kennish, Practical Handbook of Marine Science, 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001.


B. Petric, V. Martinac, Mineralne sirovine mora i podmorja, laboratorijske vježbe, Tehnološki fakultet, Split, 1994.


M. Labor, Mineralne sirovine mora i podmorja, ppt prezentacija, on line (2014-02-26), Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet, Split, 2014.


on line

Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

K. Stowe, Exploring Ocean Science, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1996.
Desalination, Trends and Technologies, Ed by M. Schorr (on line 2011-02-28), InTechOpen, 2011.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at three levels:
(1) University Level;
(2) Faculty Level by Quality Control Committee;
(3) Lecturer’s Level.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)