Structure and Properties of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials

NAME OF THE COURSE Structure and Properties of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials



Year of study


Course teacher

Prof Jelica Zelić

Credits (ECTS)


Associate teachers

Asst Prof Mario Nikola Mužek

Type of instruction (number of hours)






Status of the course


Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %


Course objectives

Qualifying students to adopt and apply basic knowledge of the structure and properties of inorganic non-metallic materials and methods of investigations as important preconditions to create materials of predetermining properties.

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course


Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the course, students will be able to:
1. Explain the concept of minerals, crystals and amorphous state.
2. Explain the basic concepts and principles of crystallography.
3. Categorize the elements of symmetry of crystals and crystal systems.
4. Explain the interatomic bonds in crystals and the packing of atoms concept in the crystal structures.
5. Describe the basic concepts, parameters and principles in X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis methods (DTA-TG/DTG) and electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
6.Choosing the right approach in the selection of appropriate methods for structural characterization of materials starting from the knowledge acquired.

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1st week. Introduction. The Earth’s crust, rocks, minerals, the environmental conditions and processes of minerals genesis.
2nd week: Overview of basic raw non-metallic materials.
3rd week: Crystalline and amorphous state. Basic crystallographic principles.
4th week: The crystal structure. Crystallographic axes, lattice parameters and lattice planes in the crystal.
5th week: Symmetry elements. Crystal systems and symmetry. Unit cell parameters of crystals.
6th week: Bases of crystalochemistry. Coordination number. Pauling’s rules for ionic crystals.
7th week: Theory of close-packed crystal structure. Main types of crystal structures. Silicate structures. Crystal lattice defects, isomorphism, polymorphism and solid solutions.
8th week: The physical, electrical, thermal and optical properties of crystalline substances. The written knowledge tests (I Colloquium).
9th week: The significance of the structural phases analyses in control and managing of manufacturing processes, and in holding out qualities of final industrial products. Examples from practice.
10th week: Methods for structural characterization of silicates, oxides and other inorganic engineering materials. Example for the identification of clay minerals by the combined methods of analysis (chemical analysis, X-ray analysis, thermal and infrared analysis).
11th week: The basic principles of the X-ray diffraction. X-ray spectra, continuous and characteristic spectrum. Bragg’s equation. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. Silicate structures and their characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns.
12th week: Fluorescent X-ray analysis. Infrared spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption band position of the individual functional groups of minerals. Infrared spectra of the phylosilicates.
13th week: Methods for identification of microstructure. Electron microscopy and microanalysis.
14th week: Methods of thermal analysis. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Applying the method of thermal analysis (DTA-TG/DTG) in chemistry of cement.
15th week: Electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Application of transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy and electron microanalysis on silicate materials. The written knowledge tests (II Colloquium).
1. Determination unit cell parameters and identification of the hkl indices of the powder sample.
2. Determination of crystallite size. Determination of the unit cell parameters by method oscillations of single crystals.
3. XRD characterization of crystal materials. Qualitative X-ray analysis of the mineral sample and the mixture of minerals.
4. Application of the method of thermal analysis (DTA-TG/DTG) in the chemistry of cement: (a) monitoring the progress of the hydration reaction in cement-water system (with and without pozzolana additions), and (b) the determination of kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of portlandite formed in cement-water system.
5. Applying infrared spectroscopy: (a) in the analysis of the historic and cultural heritage monuments (”Mediterranean patinas” on the monuments of marble and limestone), and (b) in the analysis and identification of silicate.

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Each student is required to do the entire exercises planned program (100%). On completion of all exercises the final written exam is obligated.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance




Practical training


Experimental work








Seminar essay






Oral exam




Written exam






Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

The entire test can be applied over two (2) exams during the semester. Passing threshold is 60%. Each colloquium in assessing participates with 45%. Lectures presence of 80 to 100% is 10% marks. The examination periods there is a written and oral exam. Passing threshold is 60%. Passing one colloquium (previous activity) is true in the summer examination period with a share of 10% in the assessment. Written exam has a share of 40% and 50% verbal. Students who have not passed the exam by tests take the examination through written and oral exams in the regular examination period. Passing threshold is 60% and the examination form to participate in the evaluation by 50%.
Rating: 60% -70% - satisfactory, 71% -81% - good, 82% -92% very good, 93% -100% - excellent.

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)


Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

T. Terić, J. Zelić, Strukturna analiza faza, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet u Splitu, Split, 2008. (interna skripta).


J. Zelić, Praktikum iz procesa anorganske industrije, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet u Splitu, Split, 2013. (recenzirani i objavljeni nastavni materijali)

1 http:// _an

Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

A. R. West, Solid State Chemistry and its Application, Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1992., ISBN 0 471 90377 9 (U.S.).
P. Petrovski, Uvod u rentgensku difraktometriju i mineralna rentgenska analiza cementa, Univerzitetski udžbenik, Univerzitet u Zenici, B&H, Zenica, 2006.
ISBN 9958-716-16-X.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality of the teaching and learning monitored at the level of the
(1) teachers, accepting suggestions of students and colleagues, and
(2) Faculty, conducting surveys of students on teaching quality.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)