Polymerization Processes

NAME OF THE COURSE Polymerization Processes

Code

KTB109

Year of study

1.

Course teacher

Assoc Prof Matko Erceg

Credits (ECTS)

8.0

Associate teachers

Type of instruction (number of hours)

P S V T

45

15

45

0

Status of the course

Mandatory

Percentage of application of e-learning

0 %

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Course objectives

- introduction to mechanisms and kinetics of polymerization reactions (step-growth and chain polymerization) and their technological implementation
- training for work in a manufacturing plant and / or laboratory
- understanding the importance of polymers in modern society

Course enrolment requirements and entry competences required for the course

 

Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course (4 to 10 learning outcomes)

After passing the exam, the student is expected to be able to:
- distinguish basic types of polymers
- enumerate the raw material for the production of polymers
- differentiate the basic polymerization reaction
- explain the parameters for the polymerization process
- explain that širokoprimjenjivi polymers are obtained which polymerisation reactions
- implement selected polymerization reaction in laboratory equipment
- conclude on the importance of polymers in modern society
- use the acquired knowledge in engineering practice

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)

1st week: Introduction. World production of polymers, the main application, historical development of synthetic organic polymers. Production of monomers from petrochemicals and renewable raw materials.
2nd week: Polymerization reactions. Characteristics of step-growth and chain reactions. Step-growth polymerization. Mechanism. Kinetics of catalyzed polymerization. Kinetics of uncatalysed polymerization. Analytical expressions for the reaction rate.
3rd week: Dependence of the average degree of polymerization and the average molecular weight on duration of polymerization. The definition of average molecular weight. Flory’s the most probable molecular weight distribution (numerical and weight average).
4th week: Modified Carothers equation: the average functionality of the critical conversion. Carothers equation for non-stoichiometric ratio of bifunctional monomers. Technical design of step-growth polymerization (bulk polymerization, the interfacial polymerization).
5th week: Examples of thermoplastic step-growth polymers: polyesters, polycarbonates, polyamides (aliphatic and aromatic), polyimides, polysulfones, poly (phenylene oxide), polyurethanes, polysiloxanes. The theory of crosslinking.
6th week: Examples of thermosetting step-growth polymers: unsaturated polyesters and modified alkyd resins, phenoly formaldehyde polymers, epoxy resins). Chain polymerization - characteristics.
7th week: The radical chain polymerization, initiator types. The mechanism of polymerization (initiation, propagation and termination). Rate of polymerization (analytical expression). The kinetic chain length. Average degree of polymerization and the average molecular weight. The distribution of molecular weights.
8th week: The ionic chain polymerization. Anionic polymerization: initiators, mechanism, rate of polymerization, the kinetic chain length, average degree of polymerization, molecular weight distribution. Anionic polymerization: initiators, mechanism, rate of polymerization, the kinetic chain length, average degree of polymerization, molecular weight distribution
9th week: Effect of temperature on the rate of polymerization. Stereospecific polymerization. Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The mechanism of the stereospecific polymerization. Basic characteristics of stereoregular polymers. Metallocenes. Polymerization with metallocene catalysts.
10th week: Examples of polymers obtained by chain polymerizacion: polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetrafluoroethylene)...
11th week: Copolymerization. Types of copolymers. Copolymerization equation. Experimental determination of reactivity ratios (Lewis Maya method). Allfrey-Price method of determining the individual reactivity of monomers in copolymerization. Distribution and average length of the sequences in the copolymer.
12th week: Technical Design polymerization process. Homogeneous polymerization in bulk, in solution. Heterogeneous polymerization in bulk, in solution and in suspension.
13th week: Polymerization in supercritical CO2. Industrial production of widely available polymers: low density polyethylene and high density polyethylene. Polymerization of ethylene in suspension, in solution and gass phase.
14th week: Borstar bimodal process. Poly (vinyl chloride): production and application. Polypropylene and polystyrene (technical performance of the polymerization process).
15th week: The final lecture, discussion, comments, conclusions.
Laboratory exercises:
Exercise 1. Synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin.
Exercise 2. Polyesterification of adipic acid with diethylene glycol.
Exercise 3. Synthesis of modified alkyd resin.
Exercise 4. Suspension polymerization of styrene.
Exercise 5. Emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate.
Exercise 6. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) by alcoholysis of poly(vinyl acetate).
Exercise 7. Synthesis of polyamide 610 by interfacial polymerization.

Format of instruction:

Student responsibilities

Attending lectures and seminars in the 80% amount and laboratory exercises in the 100% amount of the total number of lessons.

Screening student work (name the proportion of ECTS credits for eachactivity so that the total number of ECTS credits is equal to the ECTS value of the course):

Class attendance

1.5

Research

0.0

Practical training

0.3

Experimental work

1.5

Report

0.4

0.7

Essay

0.0

Seminar essay

0.0

 

 

Tests

1.2

Oral exam

1.2

 

 

Written exam

1.2

Project

0.0

 

 

Grading and evaluating student work in class and at the final exam

Continuous evaluation:
The entire exam can be passed over three colloquium during the semester. Pass threshold for each colloquium is 50%. Each colloquium participates with 25% in a final grade. Laboratory exercises (50-100% success) participate with 20% in a final grade, while attending lectures in 80-100% amount is 5% of a final grade.
Final evaluation:
Two passed colloquium (previous activity) is recognized as 20% of a final grade. The remaining part is taken on written and oral exam at prescribed examination terms. Written exam accounts for 30%, oral exam for 40%, while laboratory exercises account for 20% of a final grade, respectively.
One passed colloquium (previous activity) is recognized as 10% of a final grade. The remaining part is taken on written and oral exam at prescribed examination terms. Written exam accounts for 30%, oral exam for 40%, while laboratory exercises account for 20% of a final grade, respectively.
Students who did not take or pass colloquiums take written and oral exam at prescribed examination terms. Passing threshold is 50%. Written exam accounts for 40%, oral exam for 40%, while laboratory exercises account for 20% of a final grade, respectively.
Grades definitions and percentages: sufficient (50-61%), good (62-74%), very good (75-87%), excellent (88-100%).

Required literature (available in the library and via other media)

Title

Number of copies in the library

Availability via other media

H. Ulrich, Introduction to Industrial Polymers, Hanser Publishers, Munich, 1992.;

1

A. G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2004.

1

Z. Janović, Polimerizacije i polimeri, Kemija u industriji, Zagreb, 1997.;

2

F. Rodriguez, Polymer Science and Technology, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, 1996.

1

Optional literature (at the time of submission of study programme proposal)

H. Ulrich, Row Materials for Industrial Polymers, Hanser Publishers, Vienna 1988.;
A. Ravve, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Plenum Press, London, 1995.;
G.M. Wells, Handbook of Petrochemicals and Processes, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, 1999.

Quality assurance methods that ensure the acquisition of exit competences

Quality assurance will be performed at three levels:
(1) University Level;
(2) Faculty Level by Quality Control Committee;
(3) Lecturer’s Level.

Other (as the proposer wishes to add)